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[<<] 1840s [>>]

Related: 1800s - 1842 - 1843 - 1844 - 1845 - 1846 - 1847 - 1848 - 1849

Cultural movements: bohemianism - The Club des Hashischins - Victorian age

Technological developments: illustrated newspapers - daguerrotype

Literary scene: Honoré de Balzac - Victor Hugo - Ludwig Feuerbach - Nikolai Gogol - Charles Baudelaire - Søren Kierkegaard - Edgar Allan Poe - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon - Eugène Sue

Births: Odilon Redon - Richard von Krafft-Ebing - Claude Monet - Émile Zola - Henry James - Anthony Comstock - Friedrich Nietzsche - Thomas Eakins - Henri Rousseau - Comte de Lautréamont - Thomas Edison - Octave Mirbeau - Joris Karl Huysmans

The world's first illustrated newspaper, the invention of the daguerrotype and other advances in the field of mechanical reproduction led to the development of a visual culture that would be of prime importance to later art movements such as impressionism. [Jan 2006]

The use of the term Modern art was first attested in 1849, it took another 14 years to produce the first recognized works of modern art: "The Lunch on the Grass" (1863) and "Olympia" (1863), both by Edouard Manet. [Jan 2006]

In Paris - the capital of the artistic world - Bohemianism, a romanticized image of the struggling artist is developed as a concept in the works of Honoré de Balzac and others. [Jan 2006]

Rain, Steam and Speed - The Great Western Railway painted (1844) - William Turner
This painting is a precursor to Impressionism

Vicomtesse d’Haussonville (1845) - Ingres

1846-1847, Baudelaire discovers Poe

In 1846 and 1847 Charles Baudelaire became acquainted with the works of Edgar Allan Poe, in which he found tales and poems which had, he claimed, long existed in his own brain, but had never taken shape. From this time till 1865 he was largely occupied with his translated versions of Poe's works, which were widely praised. These were published as Histoires extraordinaires ("Extraordinary stories") (1852), Nouvelles histoires extraordinaires ("New extraordinary stories") (1857), Aventures d'Arthur Gordon Pym, Eureka, and Histoires grotesques et sérieuses ("Grotesque and serious stories") (1865). Two essays on Poe are to be found in his Oeuvres complètes ("Complete works") (vols. v. and vi.). --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Baudelaire#Life_and_workq [Jan 2006]


from A Biased Timeline of the Counter-Culture
1840		Albert Brisbane: The Social Destiny of Man
		(follower of Fourier) published in U.S.
		Pierre Joseph Proudhon: "Property is theft"
		Penny post commenced, England
1840s		"the hungry 40s" in England as the depression continues
		also rapid industrialisation
		Connecticut, Mass, and Penn pass laws limiting hours of
		employement of minors in textile factories
		Chartist movement builds nearly 300 cottages in five settlements
		for supporters who wish to become independent smallholders
1841		Christ, Gothic, & Murger (Paris artists?) form a Bohemian cenacle, 
		The Society of the Water Drinkers, living in poverty
		for art, often visited by the older Hugolaters
		U.S.S. "Creole" slave revolt
		Punch first regular humorous magazine, U.K.
1841-47		Community at Brook Farm, Massachusetts (became Fourierest)
1839-42		Britain wins Opium War, forcing Chinese to accept opium 
		instead of silver as payment for tea and silk
1840s		Hashish introduced into Bohemian Paris by Gautier and others
1840s		Gautier and Flaubert develop idea of "art for art's sake"
1841		First university degrees granted to women in America
		Travel agent Thomas Cook arranges his first excursion - 
		to a temperance meeting in England
1842		Britain Chartism movement stages general strike
		Riots and strikes in industrial areas of N. England
		Polka comes into fashion
1843		Dickens: A Christmas Carol
		Sunday drumming & dancing gatherings of ?slaves? in
		Congo Square, New Orleans, terminated by city authorities;
		rituals taken into the church (?gradually)
		First Amana commune (Ebenezer, NY) (re-organized to
		share-holder community May 1932; still continuing)
		First Fourierist community founded in U.S.
		Dorothea Dix reports shocking conditions in Massachusetts
		prisons and asylums
		Congress funds Morse to build first telegraph line
		(Washington to Baltimore)
		"The Bohemian Girl" - London, Drury Lane (is this important?)
		Samuel C.S. Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy (1755-1843)
1844		Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers (co-operative)
		Karl Marx meets Friedrich Engels in Paris
		(YMCA founded, England)
1845		Friedrich Engels: The Conditions of the Working Class
		in England", published in Leipzig
1845-47		Thoreau lives at Walden Pond
1846		Brigham Young leads the Mormons to Salt Lake City
		start of Irish potato blight famine: 5 million die over 1847-52
		from 1850-60  914,000 emigrate to US
		Sewing machine patented by Elias Howe
1847		British Factory Act restricts the working day for women
		and children between 13 and 18 - to 10 hours
1848		Oneida commune with complex marriage founded NY (to 1881)
		Revolution of 1848 by Parisian poor; 25,000 killed;
		socialist bourgeois republic created
		+ revolts in Vienna, Venice, Berlin, Milan, Parma, Rome
		First socialist community founded in U.S. (Icaria);
		Texas, moves to Illinois, then Missouri, Iowa
		-- the generation born since the Paris revolt of 1830 
		is in its 20s: Gustave Moreau 22 (when was art?), Jules Verne 20 --
		Dante Gabriel Rossetti 20, John Everett Millais 19, and William 
		Holman Hunt 21, found Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, U.K.
		Marx and Engels: Communist Manifesto
		Thoreau: On The Duty of Civil Disobedience
		John Stuart Mill: Principles of Political Economy (is this important?)
		First Public Health Act in Britain
		Spiritualism becomes popular in U.S.
		Discovery of gold in California starts the gold rush

1848-9		Murger publishes chapters from Scenes de la Vie
		de Boheme, which is translated into many languages
1849		Revolts in Dresden and Baden; Ger. National Assembly passes constitution

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