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Related: 1800s - Édouard Manet - modern art - Salon des Refusés

Literature: Artifical Paradises (1860) - The Painter of Modern Life (1863) - Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865)

Art: Le déjeuner sur l'herbe (1863) - Olympia (1865)

Births: Georges Méliès (1861 - 1938) - Arthur Schnitzler (1862 - 1931) - Gustav Klimt (1862 - 1918) - Rupert Carabin (1862 - 1952) - Claude Debussy (1862 - 1918) - Edvard Munch (1863 - 1944) - Luigi Pirandello (1867 - 1936) - Gaston Leroux (1868 - 1927) - Paul Chabas (1869 - 1937)

Le déjeuner sur l'herbe/"The Lunch on the Grass" (1863) - Edouard Manet


  • 1860: Charles Baudelaire publishes Les Paradis Artificiels
  • 1861 England dropped the death penalty for male homosexual acts
  • 1862 Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs declares himself an urning [homosexual] [...]
  • 1863 Salon des Refusés / Le Déjeuner ur l' Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) - Manet
  • 1864 Notes from Underground (1864) - Fyodor Dostoevsky
  • 1865 Alice in Wonderland - Lewis Carroll
  • 1866 Courbet paints "The Origin of the World", first publicly desplayed in 1995
  • 1867 Das Kapital - Karl Marx
  • 1868 l'Ecole des biches - Edmund Duponchel, Frederick Hankey & Alfred Bégis.
  • 1869 Maldoror (1869) - Comte De Lautreamont

    Modern Art [...]

    Paris [...]

    Paris was a remarkable crucible of creativity in the 1860s. The aesthetic debates of that decade were central not only to the formal direction modern painting, literature, and music would take; the manner in which art and culture either influenced or mirrored national identity became a near obsession. The world from which Impressionism came also gave birth to a modern politics marked by sharp nationalist pride, conflict, and hatred. Sewn into the fabric of French controversies surrounding Wagner and the direction of modern art from the 1860s and 1870s were strands of chauvinism, racialist thinking, and anti-Semitism. The Jewish librettist of La Vie Parisienne and many other Offenbach works, Ludovic Halévy, was for years among the closest of Edgar Degas's friends. That friendship would end in the wake of the Dreyfus Affair: Degas was a staunch believer in Dreyfus's guilt. --Leon Botstein, http://www.americansymphony.org/dialogues_extensions/94_95season/1st_concert/leon.cfm [Aug 2004]

    "The Parisian," noted a perceptive American visitor to Paris in the late 1860s, "cares but little for his home ... As much time as he can spare from his business he spends on the streets, at the café, or at some place of amusement." And why not? For most Parisians, "home" was a constricted apartment with few amenities, while just beyond the doorstep lay the most stylish and sophisticated urban environment of the age. Parisians could stroll in the attractive parks or along the broad boulevards of the new Paris, drink and socialize in one of the city's thousands of cafes, visit a dance hall, or take one of more than 50,000 seats (one for about every thirty-six residents) in the city's theaters, circuses, and café_concerts. --http://www.americansymphony.org/dialogues_extensions/94_95season/1st_concert/truesdell.cfm [Jul 2004]

    La Vie Parisienne

    Rich foreigners, like those parodied by Offenbach in La Vie Parisienne, flocked to the "modern Babylon" for the latest in everything fashionable. Not-so-rich foreigners also came to the city, and sometimes, like Offenbach, a native of Cologne, stayed. These visitors and immigrants came for Paris' sophisticated, urban culture, and in coming, further enriched that culture in myriad ways. Paris, like New York in the twentieth century, had the ineffable charisma of the symbolic center of the world, of the place to be. It was, as social critic Walter Benjamin aptly put it, "the capital of the nineteenth century." --http://www.americansymphony.org/dialogues_extensions/94_95season/1st_concert/truesdell.cfm [Aug 2004]

    Richard Wagner [...]

    Understanding art and culture as functions of seemingly unique, easily described national character traits has become a convenient and deceptive habit. There is irony, consequently, in the realization that the most significant event in the modern history of French music was the Paris premiere of Richard Wagner's Tannhäuser (in a revised version) on March 13, 1861. The work caused a near riot, prompting Wagner to withdraw it after the third performance. From the publication that spring of Charles Baudelaire's two-part essay "Richard Wagner and Tannhäuser in Paris" to the death of Claude Debussy in 1918, the debate over whether one ought to succumb to or resist Wagner's ideas defined the character of French music and aesthetics.

    --Leon Botstein, http://www.americansymphony.org/dialogues_extensions/94_95season/1st_concert/leon.cfm [Aug 2004]


    1. The Story of Adele H (1975) - François Truffaut [Amazon.com]
      François Truffaut's dramatization of the true story of Adele Hugo, the daughter of French author-in-exile Victor Hugo, and her romantic obsession with a young French officer is a cinematically beautiful and emotionally wrenching portrait of a headstrong but unstable young woman. Adele (Isabelle Adjani, whose pale face gives her the quality of a cameo portrait) travels under a false name and spins a half-dozen false stories about herself and her relationship to Lieutenant Pinson (Bruce Robinson), the Hussar she follows to Halifax, Nova Scotia. Pinson no longer loves her, but she refuses to accept his rejection. Sinking farther and farther into her own internal world, she passes herself off as his wife and pours out her stormy emotions into a personal journal filled with delusional descriptions of her fantasy life. Beautifully shot by Nestor Almendros in vivid color, Truffaut's re-creation of the 1860s is accomplished not merely in impressive sets and locations but in the very style of the film: narration and voiceovers, written journal entries and letters, journeys and locations established with map reproductions, and a judicious use of stills mix old-fashioned cinematic technique with poetic flourishes. The result is one of Truffaut's most haunting portraits, all the more powerful because it's true. --Sean Axmaker for Amazon.com

    A Biased Timeline of the Counter-Culture [...]

    1860		-- the generation coming of age with the revolt of 1848 
    		is in its 20s: Dore & Manet 28, Burne-Jones 27, Morris 26, 
    		Degas & Whistler 26, Cezanne 21, Monet & Renoir & Rodin 20, 
    		+ Lewis Carroll 28, Twain 25, Ramakrishna 24-- 
    1860s		Can-can becomes the rage in Paris
    1861		Confederate states ?cesede; U.S. Civil War starts
    		U.S. introduces passport system
    		Pasteur's germ theory of fermentation
    		First horse-drawn trams in London and first daily weather
    		broadcasts in Britain
    		U.K.: William Morris (27) starts design firm 
    		leading to the birth of the Arts and Crafts movement
    		Paul Cezanne (22) arrives in Paris
    1862		U.S.: Homestead Act opens free land for pioneers
    		Victor Hugo: Les Miserables
    		Founding of Red Cross proposed by Swiss humanist Dunant
    1863?		U.S.: first Federal conscription  (for the Civil War)
    		(including 300 dollar buy-out)
    1863	July	five days: NYC Draft Riots, 105 killed, many Negro
    1863		The "Salon de Refuses" in Paris:
    		?Edouard Manet's Luncheon on the Grass exhibited?
    		and many others
    		London begins constructing Underground railroad
    		U.S. Congress establishes free city mail delivery
    1863-4		8000 Navajos captured by Kit Carson and interned for
    		four years in New Mexico, then sent to a reservation
    1864		Dostoevsky: Notes From the Underground
    		Mark Twain 29, arriving in San Francisco, finds a
    		vigorous literary movement called The Bohemians
    		Massacre of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians at Sand
    		Creek, Colo.
    		First International Workingmen's Association founded by
    		Karl Marx, London and New York
    		Tolstoi: War and Peace
    		Octavia Hill begins London tenement-dwelling reforms
    1865		U.S. Civil War ends
    		Thirteenth amendment to US Constitution abolishes slavery
    		Many freed blacks turn to farming, xxx, & music (minstrel
    		shows, etc.)
    		Lewis Carroll: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
    		Atlantic cable completed
    		First oil pipeline (in Pennsylvania)
    		Ku Klux Klan founded, Pulaski, Tenn.
    		First railroad sleeping cars (designed by Pullman), U.S.
    		First train holdup (North Bend, Ohio)
    		1700 die in explosion of "Sultana", Mississippi River
    		First carpet sweeper
    		Commons Preservation Society founded, U.K.
    1866		London's first department store
    1866	(-67)	Dostoevsky: Crime and Punishment
    		"Black Friday" on London Stock Exchange
    1867		First socialist member of N. Ger. Reichstag elected
    		Marx: Das Kapital vol. 1
    		Paris Universal Exposition introduces Japanese art to the west
    		and much more
    		Straus: "Blue Danube" waltz
    		first bicycles manufactured (France?)
    		reinforced concrete patented
    		gold discovered in Wyoming
    		Mark Twain: The Jumping Frog . . .
    		Baudelaire dies, the last of the old crowd?
    1868		Painters begin to paint in Impressionist style:
    		Claude Monet (28): The River (impressionist)
    		Bakunin founds Alliance internationale de la democratie sociale
    		plastic celluloid invented
    		Nobel ?invents? dynamite
    		End of Shogunate civil wars in Japan, establishment of
    		young Meiji emperor, Japan starts to modernize
    1869		U.S. National Prohibition Party formed in Chicago
    		Red River Rebellion in Canada
    		John Stuart Mill: On The Subjection of Women
    		Bret Harte: The Outcasts of Poker Flat
    		British debtors' prisons abolished
    		First postcards, Austria

    Manet's Modernism - Michael Fried

    Manet's Modernism: Or, the Face of Painting in the 1860s - Michael Fried [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

    Our current understanding of the paintings of Manet is so heavily filtered through the lens of Impressionism that in many ways, his contributions to art history have been obscured. Called the "first modernist," his paintings marked a break with the past and paved the way for what we've come to accept as modern art in the treatment of the canvas as a flat surface. But during his time, Manet's modernist innovations were the object of ridicule. "It's flat, it isn't modeled," said Courbet of the nude in the painting Olympia. "It's like the Queen of Hearts after a bath." In Manet's Modernism, Michael Fried has set out to see Manet as his contemporaries would have seen him and to gain a more accurate reading of Manet's place in history. --Amazon.com

    Manet's Modernism is the culminating work in a trilogy of books by Michael Fried exploring the roots and genesis of pictorial modernism. Fried provides an entirely new understanding not only of the art of Manet and his generation but also of the way in which the Impressionist simplification of Manet's achievement had determined subsequent accounts of pictorial modernism down to the present. Like Fried's previous books, Manet's Modernism is a milestone in the historiography of modern art. --Product Description:

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