[<<] 1900 - 1909 [>>]

Parents: 20th century

Related: Art Nouveau (decline of) - futurism - Cubism

Literature: Heart of Darkness (1902) - The Monkey's Paw (1902) - The Confessions of Wanda von Sacher-Masoch (1907) - Hell (1908) - Henri Barbusse

Visual art: Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) - Pablo Picasso

First narrative films: The Great Train Robbery (1903) - Edwin S. Porter - A Trip To The Moon (1902) - Georges Méliès

Psychology and psychopathology: Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901), Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905); Havelock Ellis publishes Sexual Inversion (1901).

By year: 1900 - 1901 - 1902 - 1903 - 1904 - 1905 - 1906 - 1907 - 1908 - 1909

The first years of the 20th century were an age of transition. Influences of the Symbolists artists and Art Nouveau craftsmen were still felt, but the trend was towards the geometric shapes of modernism as displayed in Cubism. [May 2006]

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) - Pablo Picasso
Typical for modern art of the early 20th century Les Desmoiselles (which depicts five prostitutes in a brothel) sacrificed traditional notions of beauty and harmony in favor of dissonance, ugliness and grotesque ambivalence. The work was heavily inspired by African masks.

Births (literary): Anais Nin

Births (other): Luis Buñuel - Oskar Fischinger - George Antheil - Pierre Molinier - Jacques Lacan - Marlene Dietrich - Henri Lefèbvre - Alice Prin (Kiki) - Hans Bellmer - John Willie - Leni Riefenstahl


  • 1900 The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) - Sigmund Freud
  • 1901 Judith I, 1901 - Gustav Klimt
  • 1902 Le Voyage Dans La Lune (A Trip To The Moon) (1902) - Georges Méliès
  • 1903 Electrocuting an Elephant (1903) - Thomas Edison
  • 1904 Neue Forschungen über den Marquis de Sade und seine Zeit - Iwan Bloch
  • 1905 Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905) - Sigmund Freud
  • 1906 first record broadcast over radio
  • 1907 Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) - Picasso's
  • 1908 Braque and Picasso's first Cubist experiments
  • 1909 The first recorded use of 'marihuana' in the United States

    Events and trends

    • First aircrafts
    • Mass production of automobile
    • Wide popularity of home phonograph
    --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1900s [Mar 2006]

    Pre-WWI subcultures [...]

    In the period before World War I subculture was a small thing, social groupings of hobbyists or a matter of style and philosophy amongst artists and bohemian poets.

    One continuing 20th century subculture was Nudism. The first known organized club for nudists, Freilichtpark (Free-Light Park), was opened near Hamburg, Germany in 1903.

    Also in Germany, from 1909 onwards there was the beginning of a movement, mainly of young men and then also young women, toward freedom and getting back to nature. They wanted to throw off the strict rules of society and be more open and natural. They were called Wandervogel which can be translated as "hikers", "ramblers" or perhaps "freebird".

    In Italy a popular art movement and philosophy called Futurism championed change, speed, violence and machines.

    Hairstyles at the beginning of the century were not strict unless you were in a religious order or other controlled circumstances (the military or prison etc.). Both men and women regarded long hair as normal. Men and women had, after all, always had long hair, since prehistory. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_subcultures_in_the_20th_century [Dec 2004]

    Moving Pictures [...]

    The rise of cinema and "moving pictures" in the first decade of the 20th century gave the modern movement an artform which was uniquely its own, and again, created a direct connection between the perceived need to extend the "progressive" tradition of the late 19th century, even if this conflicted with then established norms. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modernism#The_beginning_of_modernism_1890.26ndash.3B1910 [Jun 2004]

    Music 1900-1909

    During this decade, radios brought music to the country and in 1903, the hand-cranked victrola went on the market and many Americans listened to recordings of opera stars. Broadway musicals flourished. Irving Berlin and George M. Cohan opened on Broadway. The Ziegfeld Follies (later, but still Ziegfeld) began in 1907. The waltz was replaced with ballroom dancing (Take time to watch the finale, too). And my favorite, the beer songs like Under the Anheuser Bush. Many memorable Vaudeville or Vaudeville songs were performed at this time, including She's Only a Bird in a Gilded Cage . By the 1900s, Scott Joplin had made ragtime popular by bringing it out of the red-light district onto the legitimate stage. AND, don't forget the silent films. -- http://www.nhmccd.edu/contracts/lrc/kc/decade00.html#music


    from A Biased Timeline of the Counter-Culture
    1900-2		214 Negro lynchings
    1900s		Start and growth of the Wandervogel movement in Germany
    1901		First U.S. legislation to set up building codes,
    		meant to improve living conditions in big city slums
    		First London housing co-op founded: Ealing Tenants Limited
    		Marconi transmits telegraphic radio messages from Cornwall
    		to Newfoundland
    		William Maybach, technical director at the Daimler works,
    		constructs the first Mercedes car
    		J.P. Morgan organizes U.S. Steel Corporation
    		Frank Norris: The Octopus  (exposes rr monopolies)
    		Rudolf Steiner founds anthroposophy
    		H.G. Wells: Anticipations predicts car-only motorways (get this)
    		Ragtime jazz develops in U.S.
    1902		Coal strike in U.S., May-Oct
    		William James: The Varieties of Religious Experience
    		Enrico Caruso makes his first phonograph recording
    1903		Orville and Wilbur Wright successfully fly a powered airplane
    		(first manned flight)
    		First Garden City started, built by co-operative association:
    		Letchworth, England (north of London)
    1904		War between Japan and Russia - first time U.S. gets
    		involved as a world power
    		economic recession
    		New York City opens first subway segment
    		10-hour work day: France
    		first radio transmission of music (Austria)
    		first practical photoelectric cell (Elster)
    		first ultraviolet lamps
    		Rolls-Royce Company founded
    		first telgraphic transmission of photographs
    		New York policeman arrests woman for smoking cigarette in public
    		Jean Jaures issues socialist newspaper "L'Humanite", Paris
    		Ivan Pavlov wins Nobel prize (explain)  ?wrong?
    		Freud: The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
    		Max Weber: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
    		James Barrie: Peter Pan
    		Herman Hesse (27): Peter Camenzind (first book)
    1905	June	Niagara Movement first meeting, called by W.E.B. Du Bois
    	June	I.W.W. (Wobblies) founded, Chicago, by William Haywood,
    		Mother Jones, Father Thomas J. Hagerty, Lucy Parsons, 
    		Daniel De Leon, & Eugene V. Debs and 200 others
    1905		street fighting in Petersburg crushed by police 
    		Sinn Fein Party founded, Dublin
    		Jack London runs for mayor of ??
    		First Fauve exhibit (Paris) (Matisse, Roualt +)
    		Bohemians of Carmel-by-the-Sea, Calif.: George Sterling, 
    		Jack London, Mary Austin, etc. roughing it
    		Jack London: The Road - about hobo life
    		Hermann Hesse: Unterm Rad
    		first regular cinema established (Pittsburgh, Pa),
    		Alternative schools start, U.K.: St. Christopher's
    		(near Letchworth Garden City)
    		Albert Einstein (26): Special Theory of Relativity
    		first neon light signs
    		Nipsell's Farm, Essex: intensive cultivation
    		Debussy: "Golliwogs Cakewalk"
    1906		Nightshift work for women internationally forbidden
    		First radio program of voice and music, U.S.
    		First parkway started, Long Island: limited-access highway 
    		designed for private-car traffic only, and landscaped
    		Upton Sinclair: The Jungle (Chicago stockyard)
    		-> U.S. Pure Food and Drugs Act
    		Jack London: The Iron Heel
    		F.A. Morton: The Simple Life on Four Acres
    		(fourth in Cottage Farm Series by simple-life publisher
    		A.C. Fifield)
    		Buddy Bolden, 28, the first "king" of New Orleans Storyville
    		music, stops playing
    1907		Depression(?) in US: 
    		Panic of 1907 causes run on banks stopped by J.P. Morgan's
    		importation of $100 million in gold from Europe
    		Pres. Theodore Roosevelt bars Japanese from immigrating to U.S.
    		First suburb specifically based on the automobile:
    		Country Club District, Kansas City (& at low density)
    		Louis Lumiere develops process for color photography
    		Alice B. Toklas & Gertrude Stein move to Europe 
    		First Cubist exhibition, Paris
    		Pablo Picasso (25) : "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon" 
    		Claude Monet painting water lilies at Giverny
    		Henri Rousseau: "The Snake Charmer"
    		Montessori [explain]
    		Baden-Powell founds Boy Scouts
    1908	August	Springfield, Illinois: white woman's accusation of Negro
    		rape (later retracted) sets off riot which destroys Negro 
    		businesses and ransacks Negro homes; Negro barber and
    		84 year old Negro man, married to white woman 30
    		years, lynched; 5000 militia sent in to suppress
    1908		First steel and glass building (Berlin factory)
    		General Motors Corporation formed
    		Ford Motor Company produces first Model "T"
    		Fauves works first shown in U.S.
    		Matisse coins the term "Cubism"
    		Gertrude Stein: Three Lives
    		Isadora Duncan becomes popular interpreter of dance
    		"Ashcan School" founded - realistic portrayals of life:
    		Robert Henri, John Sloan, George Luks, William Glackens,
    		George Bellows, Everett Shinn
    1909		Commercial manufacture of Bakelite, to be used in plastics
    		Spokane, Washington: 600 Wobblies arrested for free speech
    		Futurist manifesto published, Italy
    		Vassily Kandinsky's first abstract paintings
    		Henri Matisse: Harmony in Red (Red Room)
    		Sergei Diaghilev: first Ballet Russe presentation, Paris

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