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Film As a Subversive Art (1974) - Amos Vogel

Related: Amos Vogel - art - avant-garde film - art house cinema - intellectual - subversive - transgressive cinema - 1974 - film

Film As a Subversive Art (1974) - Amos Vogel [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

Subversion in cinema starts when the theatre darkens and the screen lights up. For the cinema is a place of magic where psychological and environmental factors combine to create an openness to wonder and suggestion, and unlocking of the unconcious. It is a shrine at which modern rituals rooted in atavistic memories and subconscious desires are acted out in darkness and seclusion from the outer world -- Amos Vogel via Film As a Subversive Art (1974).


Film As a Subversive Art is a 1974 book on film by film connoisseur Amos Vogel, written from a Freudo-Marxist point of view in a typical revolutionary 1970s vein. Clearly one of the better books on film. Also recommended if you like Amos Vogel's book are Cult Movie Stars (1991), Incredibly Strange Films (1986), Midnight Movies (1983) and Immoral Tales (1994).

Norman Mailer, by way of Amazon, has this to say:

"A classic returns. The original edition of Amos Vogel's seminal book, Film as a Subversive Art was first published in 1974, and has been out of print since 1987. According to Vogel--founder of Cinema 16, North America's legendary film society--the book details the "accelerating worldwide trend toward a more liberated cinema, in which subjects and forms hitherto considered unthinkable or forbidden are boldly explored." So ahead of his time was Vogel that the ideas that he penned some 30 years ago are still relevant today, and readily accessible in this classic volume. Accompanied by over 300 rare film stills, Film as a Subversive Art analyzes how aesthetic, sexual, and ideological subversives use one of the most powerful art forms of our day to exchange or manipulate our conscious and unconscious, demystify visual taboos, destroy dated cinematic forms, and undermine existing value systems and institutions. This subversion of form, as well as of content, is placed within the context of the contemporary world view of science, philosophy, and modern art, and is illuminated by a detailed examination of over 500 films, including many banned, rarely seen, or never released works. I think that it must be the most exciting and comprehensive book I've seen on avant-garde, underground, and exceptional commercial film. The still pictures are so well chosen that their effect is cumulative and powerful." --Norman Mailer via Amazon.com

And an older book jacket says this:

From the beginning, the cinema has been a major target of censors, the state, and traditionalists afraid of its powerful impact, especially when manipulated by aesthetic and ideo- logical innovators and rebels. As a result, public cinema has often found it difficult to display openly some of man's most fundamental experiences. Today, however, neither fear nor repression seem able to stem an accelerating world-wide trend toward a more liberated cinema, in which subjects and forms hitherto considered unthinkable or forbidden are boldly explored.

The attack on the visual taboo and its demystification by open display is profoundly subversive, for it strikes at prevailing concepts of morality and religion and thereby at law and order itself. Equally subversive is the destruction of old cinematic forms and "immutable" rules by new approaches to narrative style, camera work, and editing.

Amos Vogel places this subversion of content and form within the context of the contemporary world view of science, philosophy, and politics. The aesthetic, sexual, and political subversives of the cinema are introduced to the reader as catalysts of social and intellectual change. There are special chapters on Nazi propaganda, the early Soviet Russian avant-garde, expressionism, surrealism, the counterculture, and the "forbidden subjects" of cinema (sex, birth, death, blasphemy). Also analyzed are the massive assaults on narrative, time, and space in modern cinema and the effectiveness and containment of filmic subversion.

Each chapter focuses on a major aspect of this movement and is followed by a detailed examination of representative films; these include many banned or rarely seen works.

The text is rounded out with more than 300 rare stills accompanied by unique, detailed captions designed to invite their "close reading".

Amos Vogel has drawn on the experience of 25 years in film, exhaustive international research, and personal archives of over 20,000 titles and stills to produce a thought-provoking, controversial work that deals with areas of film rarely covered by standard histories and is simultaneously designed to test the limits of each reader's tolerance as well. --(from the book jacket)

Film As a Subversive Art chapters










List of films in Film as a Subversive Art

... And The Fifth Horseman Is Fear (A Paty Jezdec Je Strach ...) [Zbynek Brynch, 1964, Czechoslovakia] - 12-12-46 [Bernard Stone, 1966, USA] - 8x8 - A Chess Sonata [Hans Richter, 1957, USA] - A La Mode [Stan Vanderbeek, 1961, USA] - A Propos De Nice [Jean Vigo, 1930, France] - Abominable Dr Hitchcock, The (L Orribile Segreto Del Dottore Hitchcock) [Riccardo Freda (Robert Hampton), 1962, Italy] - Act Of Seeing With Ones Own Eyes, The [Stan Brakhage, 1972, USA] - Acupunctural Anaesthesia [Peking Television, 1971, China] - Affair Of The Heart Or The Tragedy Of A Switchboard Operator, An -also Love Affair (Ljubavni Slucaj Hi Tragedija Sluzbenice P.T.T) [Dusan Makavejev, 1967, Yugoslavia] - Âge D' Or, L [Luis Buñuel, 1930, France] - Akran [Richard Myers, 1970, USA] - Aktion 540 [Werner Koenigs, 1968, West Germany] - Aktion J [Walter Heynowski, 1961, East Germany] - Alexander Nevsky [Sergei M. Eisenstein, 1938, USSR] - Alienist, The (Il Alienista) - (Azyllo Muito Louco) [Nelson Pereira Dos Santos, 1970, Brazil] - All My Babies [George Stoney, 1963, USA] - Allures [Jordan Belson, 1961, USA] - Alone (Magany) [Vince Lakatos, 1969, Hungary] - Among Men (Wuearod Ludzi) [Wladyslaw Slesicki, 1962, Poland] - And God Created Woman (Et Dieu Crea La Femme) [Roger Vadim, 1956, France] - Andalusian Dog, An (Un Chien Andalou) [Luis Buñuel, 1929, France] - Andrei Roublev (Andrej Rubljow) [Andrei Tarkovsky, 1962-67, USSR] - Andromeda Strain, The [Robert Wise, 1971, USA] - Anemic Cinema [Marcel Duchamp, 1926, France] - Angel Has Fallen, An [Roman Polanski, 1959, Poland] - Anticipation Of The Night [Stan Brakhage, 1957, USA] - Antonio-Das-Mortes [Glauber Rocha, 1969, Brazil] - Aos [Yoji Kuri, 1964, Japan] - Apartment, The (Byt) [Jan Svankmajer, 1968, Czechoslovakia] - Apotheosis/Apotheosis 2 [John Lennon, 1970, Great Britain] - Apropos Of A Person Variously Called Holy Lazarus Or Babaiu (Acerca De Un Personaje Que Unos Llaman San Lazaro Y Otros Llamen Bablu) [Octavio Cortazar, 1968, Cuba] - Archaeology (Archaeologia) [Andrzej Brzozowski, 1967, Poland] - Archangel Gabriel (Archandel Gabriel A Pani Husa) [Jiri Trnka, 1965, Czechoslovakia] - Archives Testify, The [Annelie and Andrew Thorndike, 1959, East Germany] - Arnulf Rainer [Peter Kubelka, 1957, Austria] - Arrival Of A Train In The Station, The (Arrivee d'un Train Au Gare De La Ciotat) [Louis Lumière, 1895, France] - Arsenal [Alexander Dovzhenko, 1929, USSR] - Atom Strikes, The [Army Pictorial Service, US Signal Corps for War Department, 1950, USA] - Avventura, L' [Michelangelo Antonioni, 1960, Italy] - Bad Luck (Zezowate Szczesie) [Andrzej Munk, 1961, Poland] - Ballet Mécanique [Fernand Leger, 1924, France] - Baptism Of Fire (Feuertaufe) [Hans Bertram, 1940, Germany] - Barbarella [Roger Vadim, 1968, France] - Battle of Algiers, The (La Bataglia Di Algeria) [Gillo Pontecorvo, 1966, Italy] - Battleship Potemkin (Bronenosets Potyomkin) [Sergei M. Eisenstein, 1925, USSR] - Be Sure To Behave (A Sekat Dobrotu) [Peter Solan, 1968, Czechoslovakia] - Beauty Knows No Pain [Elliott Erwitt, 1971, USA] - Beaver Films [Stag, 1970, USA] - Bed And Sofa (Tretya Meschanskaya) [Abram Room, 1927, USSR] - Bed, The [James Broughton, 1967, USA] - Before The Revolution (Prima Delia Rivoluzione) [Bernardo Bertolucci, 1964, Italy] - Beginning Of Life, The [Lars Wallen, 1968, Sweden] - Belle De Jour [Luis Buñuel, 1966, France] - Bells Of Atlantis [Ian Hugo, 1953, USA] - Bells Of Silesia, The (Das Unheil) [Peter Fleischmann, 1972, West Germany] - Between Two Worlds [Sam Kaner and Guy Coté, 1955, Great Britain] - Beyond The Law [Norman Mailer, 1968, USA] - Bicycle Thief (Ladri Di Biciclette) [Vittorio de Sica, 1949, Italy] - Big Business [J. W. Horne, 1924, USA] - Big Shave, The [Martin Scorcese, 1967, USA] - Birds, Orphans And Fools (Ptackove, Sirotci A Blazni) [Juro Jakubisco, 1961, France] - Birth And Death [Arthur and Evelyn Barron, 1968, USA] - Bitter Grapes [Richard Bartlett, 1968, USA] - Black And White Burlesque [Richard Preston, 1958, USA] - Black Panthers [Agnes Varda, 1969, USA] - Black Pudding [Nancy Edell, 1971, Great Britain] - Black TV [Aldo Tambellini, 1969, USA] - Blazes [Robert Breer, 1961, USA] - Blood (Le Sang) [Jean-Daniel Pollet, 1971, France] - Blood Of A Poet, The (Le Sang D'Un Poete) [Jean Cocteau, 1930, France] - Blood Of The Beasts, The (Le Sang Des Betes) [Georges Franju, 1949, France] - Blood Of The Condor (Yawar Mallku) [Jorges Sanjines, 1970, Bolivia] - Bloodthirsty Fairy, The (La Fee Sanguinaire) [Roland Lenthem, 1968, Belgium] - Blow Job [Andy Warhol, 1963/4, USA] - Blow-Up [Michelangelo Antonioni, 1966, Great Britain] - Blue Angel, The (Der Blaue Engel) [Josef von Sternberg, 1930, Germany] - Blue Light, The (Das Blaue Licht) [Leni Riefenstahl and Béla Balázs, 1932, Germany] - Blue Moses [Stan Brakhage, 1962, USA] - Borinage [Joris Ivens and Henri Storck, 1933, Belgium] - Boy (Shonen) [Nagisa Oshima, 1969, Japan] - Brazil: A Report On Torture [Saul Landau and Haskell Wexler, 1971, Brazil] - Breathing Together: Revolution Of The Electric Family [Morley Markson, 1970, Canada] - Breathless (A Bout De Souffle) [Jean-Luc Godard, 1959, France] - Brig, The [Jonas Mekas, 1964, USA] - But Do Not Deliver Us From Evil (Mais Ne Nous Delivrez Pas Du Mal) [Joël Séria, 1971, France] - Butterflies Do Not Live Here (Motyli Tady Neziji) [Miro Bernat, 1958, Czechoslovakia] - By The Law (Pozakonu) [Lev Kuleshov, 1926, USSR] - Cabinet of Dr Caligari, The (Das Kabinett Des Dr Caligari) [Robert Wiene, 1919, Germany] - Cadeau, Le (The Gift) [Jacques Vausseur and Dick Roberts, 1961, France] - Camps of The Dead [Allied cameramen, 1947, France] - Canyon [Jon Jost, 1971, USA] - Capricci [Carmelo Bene, 1969, Italy] - Casanova [Alexander Wolkov, 1927, France] - Casting, The [James Pasternak, 1971, USA] - Cat And The Canary, The [Paul Leni, 1927, USA] - Chair, The (Fotel) [Daniel Szczechura, 1963, Poland] - Chant D Amour, Un [Jean Genet, 1960, France] - Child Undernourishment (Desnutricion Infantil) [Alavaro Ramirez, 1969, Chile] - Chinese Firedrill [Will Hindle, 1968, USA] - Chinoise, La [Jean-Luc Godard, 1967, France] - Chotyn - 5km [Igor Kolovsky, 1968, USSR] - Chronicle Of Anna Magdalena Bach, The (Die Chronik Der Anna Magdalena Bach) [Jean-Marie Straub, 1967, Germany] - Church Bell, The (La Cloche) [Jean L Hote, 1964, France] - Circle Of Love (La Ronde) [Max Ophuls, 1954, France] - Claires Knee (Le Genou De Claire) [Eric Rohmer, 1970, France] - Clockwork Orange [Stanley Kubrick, 1972, Great Britain] - Co-Co Puffs [Ira Wohl, 1972, USA] - Color Film [Standish Lawder, 1971, USA] - Coming Apart [Milton Moses Ginsberg, 1969, USA] - Conformist, The (II Conformista) [Bernardo Bertolucci, 1970, Italy/France/West Germany] - Constitution And Censorship [Stephen Sharff, 1953, USA] - Continuing Story Of Carel And Ferd, The [Arthur Ginsburg, 1972, USA] - Cosmic Ray [Bruce Conner, 1962, USA] - Cow, The (Gav) [Daryush Mehrjui, 1969, Iran] - Cremator, The (Spalovac Mrtvol) [Juraj Herz, 1968, Czechoslovakia] - Criminal Life Of Archibaldo De La Cruz (Ensayo De Un Crimen) [Luis Buñuel, 1955, Mexico] - Critical Years, The (Kristove Roky) [Juro Jakubisco, 1967, Czechoslovakia] - Cry Of Jazz, The [Edward Bland, 1959, USA] - Cuckoo Waltz [Edward van Moerkerken, 1955, Holland] - Culebra: The Beginning (Culebra) [Diego de la Texera, 1971, Puerto Rico] - Daisies (Sedmikrasky) [Vera Chytilova, 1966, Czechoslovakia] - Damned, The (Caduta Degli Dei E Götterd ämmerung) [Luchino Visconti, 1969, West Germany] - Damon The Mower [George Dunning, 1971, Great Britain] - Danish Blue (Det Kaere Legettff) [Gabriel Axel, 1968, Denmark] - Day In Town, A (En Dag I Staden) [Pontus Hulten and Hans Nordenstrom, 1956, Sweden] - Day Of Wrath (Vredens Dags) [Carl Theodor Dreyer, 1943, Denmark] - Dead Movie [Taka Iimura, 1968, USA] - Deadline For Action [Union Films, 1948, USA] - Dear John (Kaere John) [Lars Magnus Lindgren, 1964, Sweden] - Death By Hanging (Koshikei) [Nagisa Oshima, 1968, Japan] - Death Day [Sergei M. Eisenstein (visuals), 1934, Mexico] - Death In Venice (Morte A Venezia) [Luchino Visconti, 1971, Italy] - Death Of A Bureaucrat (La Muerte De Un Burocrata) [Tomas G. Alea, 1966, Cuba] - Death Of Maria Malibran, The (Der Tod Der Maria Malibran) [Werner Schroeter, 1971, Germany] - Decameron, The (II Decamerone) [Pier Paolo Pasolini, 1970, Italy/France/Germany] - Deep Throat [Gerard Damiano, 1972, USA] - Delaware [Newsreel film collective, 1968/9, USA] - Demonstrations (Strahov) [Anonymous, 1967, Czechoslovakia] - Depart, Le [Jerzy Skolimowski, 1967, Belgium] - Deserter And The Nomads, The (Zbehove A Tulaci) [Juro Jakubisco, 1968, Czechoslovakia] - Destroy, She Said (Detruire, Dit-Elle) [Marguerite Duras, 1969, France] - Diabolique (Les Diaboliques) [Henri-Georges Clouzot, 1955, France] - Diagonal Symphony (Diagonale Symphonie) [Viking Eggeling and Hans Richter, 1924, Germany] - Diary Of A Country Priest (Journal D'' Un Cure De Campagne) [Robert Bresson, 1954, France] - Diary Of A Shinjuku Burglar (Shinjuku Dorobo Nikki) [Nagisa Oshima, 1968/9, Japan] - Dinner Three Minutes [Jean-Paul Vroom, 1969, Netherlands] - Discreet Charm Of The Bourgeoisie, The (La Charme Discrete De La Bourgeoisie) [Luis Buñuel, 1972, France] - Disorder (Desordre) [Jacques Baratier, 1955, France] - Distant Journey (Ghetto Terezin) [Alfred Radok, 1948, Czechoslovakia] - Documentary Footage [Morgan Fisher, 1968, USA] - Don Juan Don Giovanni [Carmelo Bene, 1970, Italy] - Don Quixote (Don Kihote) [Vlado Kristl, 1961, Yugoslavia] - Door In The Wall, The [Glenn H. Alvey, 1956, Great Britain] - Dove, The [George Coe, 1971, USA] - Dr Strangelove: Or How I Learned To Stop Worrying And Love The Bomb [Stanley Kubrick, 1963, Great Britain] - Cybele [Donald Richie, 1968, Japan] - Early Works (Rani Radovi) [Zelimir Zilnik, 1969, Yugoslavia] - Earth (Zemlya) [Alexander Dovzhenko, 1930, USSR] - Eat [Andy Warhol, 1963, USA] - Eaten Horizons (Spiste Horisonter) [Wilhelm Freddie, 1950, Denmark] - Eater, An [Kazutomo Fuzino, 1963, Japan] - Echoes Of Silence [Peter Emanuel Goldman, 1965, USA] - Eclipse, The (L'Eclisse) [Michelangelo Antonioni, 1962, France/Italy] - Ectasy (Extase) [Gustav Machaty, 1933, Czechoslovakia] - Eight Flags For 99 Cents [Charles Olin, 1970, USA] - Eikka Katappa [Werner Schroeter, 1970, West Germany] - Electrosex [Anonymous, 1970, USA] - Embryo, The [Koji Wakamatsu, 1966, Japan] - Emitai [Ousamane Sembene, 1971, Senegal] - Emperor Tomato Ketchup [Shuji Terayama, 1972, Japan] - Empire [Andy Warhol, 1964, USA] - End of One, The [Paul Kocela, 1971, USA] - End of St Petersburg, The (Konyets Sankt-Peterburga) [V. I. Pudovkin, 1927, USSR] - Dreams That Money Can Buy [Hans Richter, 1948, USA] - Eternal Jew, The (Der Ewige Jude) [Fritz Hippler, 1940, Germany] - Even Dwarfs Started Small (Auch Zwerge Haben Klein Angefangen) [Werner Herzog, 1970, West Germany] - Events [Fred Baker, 1970, USA] - Everready [Anonymous, 1925, USA] - Every Seventh Child [Jack Willis, 1967, USA] - Everything Is A Number (Wszystko Jest Liczba) [Stefan Schabenbeck, 1967, Poland] - Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Sex, But Were Afraid To Ask [Woody Allen, 1972, USA] - Evil Hour, An [Peter Wolff, 1970, USA] - Faces [John Cassavettes, 1968, USA] - Family [Hubert Smith, 1971, USA] - Fantastic Vision (Visions Fantastiques) [Eugene Deslaw, 1957, Spain/Switzerland] - Far From Vietnam (Loin De Vietnam) [Resnais, Varda, Godard, Marker, Kein, Ivens and Lelouch, 1965, France] - Fat And The Lean, The (Le Gros Et Le Maigre) [Roman Polanski, 1964, France] - Fata Morgana [Werner Herzog, 1970, West Germany] - Film, A (Un Film) [Sylvina Boissonnas, 1969, France] - Fingerexercise (Fingerubung) [Robert Schauer, 1969, Switzerland] - Fire Walkers, The (Anasternaria) [Roussos Condouros, 1961, Greece] - Fireman's Ball (Hori Ma Panenko) [Milos Forman, 1976, Czechoslovakia] - Fireworks [Kenneth Anger, 1947, USA] - First Charge Of The Machete, The (La Primera Carga Al Machete) [Manuel Octavio Gomez, 1969, Cuba] - Five Easy Pieces [Bob Rafelson, 1970, USA] - Flaming Creatures [Jack Smith, 1962, USA] - Flesh [Paul Morrissey, 1968, USA] - Flesh Of Morning [Stan Brakhage, 1966, USA] - Flicker [Tony Conrad, 1966, USA] - Flowers Of St Francis, The (Francesco, Giullare Di Dio) [Roberto Rossellini, 1950, Italy] - Fly [Yoko Ono, 1971, USA] - Fly, The (Muha) [Alexsander Marks and Vladimir Jutrisa, 1967, Yugoslavia] - For Example [S. Arakawa, 1971, USA] - Forbidden Bullfight (Corrida Interdite) [Denys Colomb de Daunant, 1959, France] - Forbidden Games (Jeux Interdits) [Rene Clement, 1952, France] - Fotodeath [Al Kouzel, 1958, USA] - Fragment Of Seeking [Curtis Harrington, 1946, USA] - Freaks [Tod Browning, 1932, USA] - Free Radicals [Len Lye, 1957, USA] - Frenzy [Alfred Hitchcock, 1971, Great Britain] - Fritz The Cat [Ralph Bakshi, 1972, USA] - Funeral Parade Of Roses (Bara No Soretsu) [Toshio Matsumoto, 1969, Japan] - Further Adventures Of Uncle Sam [Robert Mitchell and Dale Chase, 1971, USA] - Gai Savoir, Le [Jean-Luc Godard, 1969, France] - Games Of The Angels (Les Jeux Des Anges) [Walerian Borowczyk, 1964, France] - Germ And Chemical Warfare [CBS News, 1968, USA] - Gestapoman Schmidt (Powszedni Dzien Gestapowsca Schmidta) [Jerzy Ziarnik, 1964, Poland] - Gift, The (Le Cadeau) [Jacques Vausseur and Dick Roberts, 1961, France] - Gimme Shelter [Albert Maysles and David Maysles, 1970, USA] - Glen And Randa [Jim McBride, 1971, USA] - Go Slow On The Brighton [Donald Smith, 1952, Great Britain] - Go-Between, The [Joseph Losey, 1971, Great Britain] - Goalie's Anxiety At The Penalty Kick, The (Die Angst Des Tormanns Beim Elfmeter) [Wim Wenders, 1972, Austria] - God is Dog Spelled Backwards [Don McLaughlin, 1967, USA] - Gods And The Dead, The (Os Deuses E Os Mortes) [Ruy Guerra, 1970, Brazil] - Golden Positions, The [James Broughton, 1970, USA] - Good Morning (Ohayo) [Yasujiro Ozu, 1960, Japan] - Gran Siguriya, La [Jose Val Del Omar, 1955, Spain] - Great American Train Robbery, The [Edwin S. Porter, 1903, USA] - Great Society, The [Fred Mogubgub, 1967, USA] - Fuses [Carolee Schneemann, 1964-7, USA] - HvO [Ralph Steiner, 1929, USA] - Hail [Fed Levinson, 1971, USA] - Hallucinations [Peter Weiss, 1952, Sweden] - Hamburg October 1923 Insurrection, The (Der Hamburger Aufstand Oktober 1923) [Reiner Etz, Gisela Tuchtenhagen and Klaus Wildenhahn, 1972, West Germany] - Hand, The (Ruka) [Jiri Trnka, 1966, Czechoslovakia] - Hands Over The City (Le Mani Sulla Citta) [Francecso Rosi, 1963, Italy] - Hans Westmar [Franz Wenzler, 1933, Germany] - Happiness (Le Bonheur) [Agnes Varda, 1966, France] - Hard Day's Night, A [Richard Lester, 1964, Great Britain] - Harry Munter [Kjell Grede, 1969, Sweden] - Heat [Paul Morrissey, 1972, USA] - Heirs, The (Os Herdeiros) [Carlos Diegues, 1968/9, Brazil] - Hellstrom Chronicle, The [Walon Green and Ed Spiegel, 1971, USA] - Here Comes Every Body [John Whitmore, 1972, USA] - Hiroshima [M. Ogasawara and Y. Matsukawa, 1970, Japan] - Hiroshima Mon Amour [Alain Resnais, 1959, France/Japan] - History Of The Blue Movie [Alex de Renzie, 1971, USA] - Hitlerjunge Quex [Hans Steinhoff, 1933, Germany] - Hog Calling Blues [Neal Pace, 1969, USA] - Holding [Constance Beeson, 1971, USA] - Holiday On Sylt (Urlaub Auf Sylt) [Annelie and Andrew Thorndike, 1959, East Germany] - Homage to Jean Tinguely [Robert Breer, 1960, USA] - Home (Dom) [Walerian Borowczyk and Jan Lenica, 1958, Poland] - Hopeless Ones, The (Also: The Round-Up) (Szegenylegenyek) [Miklós Jancsó, 1965, Hungary] - Horse Feathers [Norman McLeod, 1932, USA] - Hour Of The Blast Furnaces, The (La Hora De Los Hornos) [Fernando Solanas, 1967, Argentina] - House Is Black, The (Khaneh Siah Ast) [Foroogh Farrokhzad, 1963, Iran] - House, The (Het Huis) [Louis A. van Gasteren, 1961, Netherlands] - How I Became A Negro (Wie Ich Ein Schwarzer Wurde) [Roland Gall, 1970, West Germany] - How Tasty Was My Little Frenchman (Como Era Gostoso 0 Meu Frances) [Nelson Pereira Dos Santos, 1971, Brazil] - Guidebook To Bonn And Environs (Stadtführer Für Bonn Und Umgebung) [Manfred Vosz, 1969, West Germany] - I Am Curious Yellow/Blue (Jag Ar Nyfiken - Gul/Bla) [Vilgot Sjoman, 1967, Sweden] - I Love You, I Kill You (Ich Liebe Dich, Ich Tote Dich) [Uwe Brander, 1971, West Germany] - I Was A Kapo (Bylem Kapo) [Tadeusz Jaworski, 1964, Poland] - I'm A Man [Peter Rosen, 1969, USA] - I'm Going To Give You All My Love [Jerrold Peil, 1971, USA] - Ice [Robert Kramer, 1970, USA] - Idea, The (L'ldee) [Berthold Bartosch, 1931, France] - Identification Marks: None (Rysopis) [Jerzy Skolimowski, 1964, Poland] - If [Lindsay Anderson, 1968, Great Britain] - Images Of Madness (Images De La Folie) [Eric Duvivier, 1950, France] - Imitation Du Cinema, L [Marcel Marien, 1959, Belgium] - Impudence In Grunewald (Unverschamtheit Im Grunewald) [Otmar Bauer, 1969, Germany] - Impures, Les [Pierre Chevalier, 1954, France] - In Marin County [Peter Hutton, 1971, USA] - Inauguration Of The Pleasure Dome [Kenneth Anger, 1957, USA] - Incredible Shrinking Man, The [Jack Arnold, 1957, USA] - Innocence Unprotected (Nevinost Bez Zastite) [Dusan Makavejev, 1968, Yugoslavia] - Innocent Sorcerers, The (Niewinni Czarodzieje) [Andrzej Wajda, 1960, Poland] - Institutional Quality [George Landow, 1969, USA] - Interviews With My Lai Veterans [Joseph Strick, 1971, USA] - Invasion Of The Body Snatchers, The [Don Siegel, 1956, USA] - It Happened Here [Kevin Brownlow and Andrew Mollo, 1964, Great Britain] - It Is Good To Live [Fumio Kamei, 1958, Japan] - It Is Not The Homosexual Who Is Perverse But The Situation In Which He Lives (Nicht Der Homosexuelle Ist Pervers, Sondern Die Situation In Der Er Lebt) [Rosa Von Praunheim, 1971, West Germany] - Ivan The Terrible (Ivan Grozny) [Sergei M. Eisenstein, 1945, USSR] - Jamestown Baloos [Robert Breer, 1967, USA] - Jan Palach [Anonymous, 1969, Czechoslovakia] - Japanese Sword, The (Nihonto - Monogatari) [T. Asano, 1958, Japan] - Jetee, La [Chris Marker, 1963, France] - Joke, The (Zert) [Jaromil Jires, 1968, Czechoslovakia] - Josef Kilian (Postava K v Podpirani) [Pavel Juracek and Jan Schmidt, 1963, Czechoslovakia] - Journey to Boscavia [Bosc, 1960, France] - Jud Suess (Jud Suss) [Veit Harlan, 1940, Germany] - Kama Sutra Rides Again [Bob Godfrey, 1971, Great Britain] - Katzelmacher [Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 1969, West Germany] - King Kong [Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack, 1933, USA] - Kirsa Nicholina [Gunvor Nelson, 1970, USA] - Kiss [Andy Warhol, 1962, USA] - Knife In The Water (Noz W Wodzie) [Roman Polanski, 1962, Poland] - Jules and Jim [François Truffaut, 1962, France] - LBJ [Santiago Alvarez, 1968, Cuba] - Labyrinth (Labirynth) [Jan Lenica, 1962, Poland] - Land Of Silence And Darkness (Land Des Schweigens Und Der Dunkelheit) [Werner Herzog, 1971, West Germany] - Land Without Bread (Las Hurdes) [Luis Buñuel, 1932, Spain] - Lapis [James Whitney, 1963-7, USA] - Lascivious Wotan, The (Der Geile Wotan) [Otto Muehl, 1971, Austria] - Last Laugh, The (Der Letzte Mann) [F. W. Murnau, 1924, Germany] - Last Picture Show, The [Peter Bogdanovich, 1971, USA] - Last Tango In Paris (L'Ultimo Tango A Parigi) [Bernardo Bertolucci, 1972, France/Italy] - Last Year At Marienbad (L Annee Derniere A Marienbad) [Alain Resnais, 1961, France/Italy] - Late Matthew Pascal, The (Feu Mathias Pascal) [Marcel L Herbier, 1924, France] - Latuko [Museum of Natural History, 1952, Sudan] - Laughing Man, The (Der Lachende Mann) [Walter Heynowski and Gerhard Scheumann, 1967, East Germany] - Lead Shoes, The [Sidney Peterson, 1949, USA] - Liberation Of Mannique Mechanique, The [Steve Arnold, 1971, USA] - Lickerish Quartet, The [Radley Mertzger, 1970, USA] - Life With Video [William Walker, 1972, USA] - Lightning Waterfall Fern Soup [Shelby Kennedy, 1971, USA] - Limelight [Charles Chaplin, 1952, USA] - Lion's Love [Agnes Varda, 1969, USA] - Living In A Reversed World [Theodor Wrismann and Ivo Kohler, 195?, Austria] - Kodak Ghost Poems, also Adventures of the Exquisite Corpse [Andre Noren, 1970, USA] - Look At Life [Nicholas Gosling, 1969, Great Britain] - Loops [Norman McLaren, 1948, Canada] - Love (Ai) [Yoji Kuri, 1964, Japan] - Love Story [Arthur Hiller, 1970, USA] - Loved One, The [Tony Richardson, 1965, Great Britain] - Lovemaking [Stan Brakhage, 1969, USA] - Lovers, The (Les Amants) [Louis Malle, 1958, France] - M [Fritz Lang, 1931, Germany] - Machine, The (Maszyna) [Daniel Szczechura, 1963, Poland] - Macunaima [Joachim Pedro de Andrade, 1969, Brazil] - Magritte [Luc De Heusch, 1955, Belgium] - Mailman, The (Postschi) [Daryush Mehrjui, 1971, Iran] - Make Love, Not War (Volite Se A Ne Ratujte) [Zlatko Grgic, 1971, Yugoslavia] - Males, Les [Gilles Carle, 1971, Canada] - Mama And Papa (Mama Und Papa) [Otto Muehl, 1963/69, Austria] - Mammals (Ssaki) [Roman Polanski, 1962, Poland] - Man And Dog Out For Air [Robert Breer, 1957, USA] - Man From Onan [Alan Ruskin, 1971, USA] - Man Who Left His Will On Film, The (Tokyo Senso Sengo Hiwa) [Nagisa Oshima, 1970, Japan] - Man With The Movie Camera, The (Chelovek A Kinoapparatom) [Dziga Vertov, 1929, USSR] - Margalit, The Highway Queen (Malkat Hakvish) [Menachem Golan, 1971, Israel] - Maria-Conception Action - Hermann Nitsch (Maria-Empfangnis - Aktion Hermann Nitsch) [Irm and Ed Sommer, 1969, West Germany] - Marines, The (Les Marines) [Francois Reicenbach, 1957, France] - Marjoe [Howard Smith and Sarah Kernochan, 1972, USA] - Married Woman, The (La later Une Femme Mariee) [Jean-Luc Godard, 1964, France] - Masculine-Feminine (Masculin- Feminin) [Jean-Luc Godard, 1966, France] - Meditation On The End Of Human Life (Posledni Veci Cloveka) [Jovan Kubicek, 1967, Czechoslovakia] - Memorandum [Donald Brittain and John Spotten, 1966, Canada] - Memories Of Underdevelopment (Memorias Del Subdesarollo) [Tomas G. Alea, 1969, Cuba] - Merry Working Class (Vesela Klasa) [Bojana Marijan, 1969, Yugoslavia] - Meshes Of The Afternoon [Maya Deren, 1943, USA] - Mickey Mouse In Vietnam [Lee Savage, 1968, USA] - Milky Way, The (La Voie Lactée) [Luis Buñuel, 1969, France/West Germany/Italy] - Miracle, The (II Miracolo) [Roberto Rossellini, 1948, Italy] - Modern Times [Charles Chaplin, 1936, USA] - Mona [Bill Osco, 1970, USA] - Money Order, The (Mandabi) [Ousamane Sembene, 1968, Senegal] - Monsieur Verdoux [Charles Chaplin, 1947, USA] - Moonwalk No. 1 [NASA, 1971, USA] - Mosaic In Confidence (Mosaik Im Vertrauen) [Peter Kubelka, 1963, Austria] - Most Beautiful Age, The (Nejkrasaetsi Vek) [Jaroslav Papousek, 1968, Czechoslovakia] - Mother Joan Of The Angels (Matka Joanna Od Aniolow) [Jerzy Kawalerowicz, 1961, Poland] - Mothlight [Stan Brakhage, 1961, USA] - Loves Of A Blonde (Lasky Jedne Plavoulasky) [Milos Forman, 1965, Czechoslovakia] - Movie, A [Bruce Conner, 1958, USA] - Mr Freedom [William Klein, 1970, France] - Mr Frenhofer And The Minotaur [Sidney Peterson, 1949, USA] - Murder Of Fred Hampton, The [Mike Gray, 1971, USA] - Muriel [Alain Resnais, 1963, France/Italy] - Murmur Of The Heart (Souffle Au Coeur) [Louis Malle, 1971, France] - NY, NY [Francis Thompson, 1958, USA] - Naissant [Stephen Dwoskin, 1967, Great Britain] - Navigator, The [Buster Keaton and Donald Crisp, 1924, USA] - Nazarin [Luis Buñuel, 1958, Mexico] - Nebula II [Robert Frerck, 1971, USA] - Necrology [Standish Lawder, 1969, USA] - Night And Fog (Nuit Et Brouillard) [Alain Resnais, 1965, France] - No More Fleeing (Nicht Mehr Fliehen) [Herbert Vesely, 1955, West Germany] - None Story, The [Stag, 1950s, USA] - Nosferatu [F. W. Murnau, 1922, Germany] - Not All That Flies Is A Bird (Nije Ptica Sve Sto Leti) [Borislav Sajtinac, 1970, Yugoslavia] - Note From Above, A [Derek Phillips, 1969, Great Britain] - Nothing Happened This Morning [David Bienstock, 1965, USA] - Notte, La [Michelangelo Antonioni, 1961, Italy/France] - Now (Ahora) [Santiago Alvarez, 1965, Cuba] - Number 4 [Yoko Ono, 1968, Great Britain] - Nun, The (La Religieuse) [Jacques Rivette, 1965, France] - My Dearest Wish (Nejvetsi Prani) [Jan Sprata, 1965, Czechoslovakia] - O Dreamland [Lindsay Anderson, 1953, Great Britain] - O Lucky Man [Lindsay Anderson, 1973, Great Britain] - O.K. [Walter Heynowski, 1964, East Germany] - October (Oktyabr) [Sergei M. Eisenstein, 1927, USSR] - Off-On [Scott Bartlett, 1967, USA] - Oh Dem Watermelons [Robert Nelson, 1965, USA] - Old And The New, The [Sergei M. Eisenstein, 1929, USSR] - Olympia [Leni Riefenstahl, 1938, Germany] - Olympiad [Lillian Schwartz, 1971, USA] - On A Most Beautiful Meadow (Im Schönsten Wiesengrunde) [Peter von Guten, 1968, Switzerland] - Onibaba [Kaneto Shindo, 1964, Japan] - L'Opera Mouffe [Agnes Varda, 1958, France] - Operation Abolition [Newsreel, 1960, USA] - Operation Correction [ACLU, 1961, USA] - Orange [Karen Johnson, 1969, USA] - Ordinary Courage (Kazdy Den Odvahu) [Evald Schorm, 1964, Czechoslovakia] - Ordinary Fascism (Obyknovenni Fashizm) [Mikhail Romm, 1965, USSR] - Otmar Bauer Presents (Otmar Bauer Zeigt) [Otmar Bauer, 1970, West Germany] - Our Lady Of The Sphere [Larry Jordan, 1969, USA] - Our Lady Of The Turks (Nostra Signora Dei Turchi) [Carmelo Bene, 1969, Italy] - Palestine [Nick Macdonald, 1971, USA] - Pandoras Box (Die Buchse Der Pandora) [G. W. Pabst, 1928, Germany] - Paradise Now [Sheldon Rachlin, 1970, Great Britain] - Paris Belongs To Us (Paris Nous Appartient) [Jacques Rivette, 1958/60, France] - Particle Removal Series [David McCullough, 1972, USA] - Particularly Valuable (Besonders Wertvoll) [Helmuth Costard, 1968, Germany] - Pas De Deux [Norman McLaren, 1968, Canada] - Passing Days (Idu Dani) [Nedeljko Dragic, 1969, Yugoslavia] - Path, The [Richard Myers, 1961, USA] - People And Their Guns, The (Le Peuple Et Ses Fusils) [Joris Ivens and film collective, 1967, France] - Per Aspera Ad Astra [Nedeljko Dragic, 1969, Yugoslavia] - Permutations [John Whitney, 1968, USA] - Persona [Ingmar Bergman, 1966, Sweden] - Pianissimo [Carmen D'Avino, 1963, USA] - Pickpocket [Robert Bresson, 1958, France] - Pigpen (also: Pigsty) (II Porcile) [Pier Paolo Pasolini, 1969, France/Italy] - Pilgrim, The [Charles Chaplin, 1922, USA] - Pilots In Pajamas (Piloten Im Pyjama) [Walter Heynowski and Gerhard Scheumann, 1968, East Germany] - Pleasure Garden, The [James Broughton, 1953, Great Britain] - Portrait Of Jason [Shirley Clarke, 1967, USA] - Power of Plants [Paul F. Moss and Thelma Schnee, 1949, USA] - Prato Palomares [Andre Faria, 1970, Brazil] - Pravda [Jean-Luc Godard and Dziga Vertov group, 1969, France] - Private Life Of A Cat, The [Alexander Hammid, 1946, USA] - Prune Flat [Robert Whitman, 1965, USA] - Psycho [Alfred Hitchcock, 1960, USA] - Psychomontage [Eberhard and Phyllis Kronhausen, 1960, USA] - Pull My Daisy [Robert Frank and Alfred Leslie, 1959, USA] - Punishment Park [Peter Watkins, 1971, Great Britain] - Putney Swope [Robert Downey, 1969, USA] - Owl And The Pussycat, The [Herbert Ross, 1970, USA] - Que Hacer? [Saul Landau, James Becket, Rual Ruiz, Nina-Serrano, 1970, Chile-USA] - Que Viva Mexico [Sergei M. Eisenstein, 1931, Mexico] - Queen Kelly [Erich Von Stronheim, 1928, USA] - Queen, The [Frank Simon, 1968, USA] - Quiet Days in Clichy [Jens Jorgen Thorsten, 1970, Denmark] - Race, The [William Copland, 1970, Australia] - Railroad (Eisenbahn) [Lutz Mommartz, 1967, Germany] - Rape [Yoko Ono, 1969, Great Britain] - Rashomon [Akira Kurosawa, 1951, Japan] - Razor Blades [Paul Sharits, 1968, USA] - Reality Of Karel Appel, The (De Werkelijkheid Van Karel Appel) [Jan Vrijman, 1962, Holland] - Recruits in Ingolstadt (Pioniere In Ingolstadt) [Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 1971, West Germany] - Red And The White, The (Csillagosok, Katonak) [Miklós Jancsó, 1968, Hungary] - Red Psalm (Meg Ker A Nep) [Miklós Jancsó, 1972, Hungary] - Red Squad [Howard Blatt and Steve Fisher, 1972, USA] - Reed (Mexico Insurgent) (Reed: Mexico Insurgente) [Paul Leduc, 1971, Mexico] - Reflection (Zrcadleni) [Evald Schorm, 1965, Czechoslovakia] - Région Centrale, La [Michael Snow, 1972, USA/Canada] - Relativity [Ed Emshwiller, 1966, USA] - Renaissance [Walerian Borowczyk, 1963, France] - Report On The Party And The Guests (O Slavnosti A Hostech) [Jan Nemec, 1966, Czechoslovakia] - Repulsion [Roman Polanski, 1965, Great Britain] - Revealer, The (Le Revelateur) [Philippe Garrel, 1968, France] - Revolutionary Was A Cop, The [Marc Weiss, 1971, USA] - Rhythmus 21 [Hans Richter, 1921, Germany] - Rite Of Love And Death (Yukoku) [Yukio Mishima, 1965, Japan] - Robert Wall, Ex-FBI Agent [Michael Anderson, Paul Jacobs, Saul Landau, Bill Yahrans, 1972, USA] - Rogopag [Pier Paolo Pasolini, 1962, Italy] - Role Of My Family In The World Revolution, The (Vloga Moje Porodice U Svetskoj Revoluciji) [Bata Cengic, 1971, Yugoslavia] - Roma [Federico Fellini, 1972, Italy] - Rome, Open City (Roma, Citta Aperta) [Roberto Rossellini, 1945, Italy] - Room Service 75 [Fred Baker, 1971, USA] - Rope [Alfred Hitchcock, 1948, USA] - Round-Up, The (Also: The Hopeless Ones) (Szegenylegenyek) [Miklós Jancsó, 1965, Hungary] - Rules Of The Game, The (La Regie Du Jeu) [Jean Renior, 1938, France] - Runaway [Standish Lawder, 1970, USA] - Running Shadow [Robert Fulton, 1971, USA] - Running, Jumping And Standing Still Film, The [Richard Lester, Peter Sellers, 1959, Great Britain] - Saint Michael Had A Rooster (San Michele Aveva Un Gallo) [Paolo and Vittorio Taviani, 1971, Italy] - Salesman [David and Albert Maysles, 1969, USA] - Samadhi [Jordan Belson, 1968, USA] - Saturday Morning [Kent Mackenzie, 1970, USA] - Satyricon [Federico Fellini, 1969, Italy] - Scandalous Adventures Of Buraikan (Buraikan) [Masahiro Shinoda, 1970, Japan] - Schoolgirl [David Reberg, 1971, USA] - Science Friction [Stan Vanderbeek, 1960, USA] - Second Coming, The [William Adler, 1915, USA] - Secret Cinema, The [Paul Bartel, 1966, USA] - Secret Formula (La Formula Secreta) [Ruben Gomez, 1966, Mexico] - Secrete Of Life [Victor Faccinto, 1971, USA] - See You At Mao (also: British Sounds) [Jean-Luc Godard and Dziga Vertov group, 1969, France/Great Britian] - Selective Service System [Warren Hack, 1970, USA] - Self-Obliteration [Jud Yalkut, 1967, USA] - Servant, The [Joseph Losey, 1963, Great Britain] - 79 Springtimes (79 Primaveras) [Santiago Alvarez, 1969, Cuba] - Sex [David Avidan, 1971, Israel] - Shadow Of An Apple [Robert Lapoujade, 1965, France] - She Done Him Wrong [Lowell Sherman, 1933, USA] - Sighet, Sighet [Harold Becker, 1967, USA] - Signs of Life (Lebenszeichen) [Werner Herzog, 1967, Germany] - Silence And Cry (Csend Es Kialtas) [Miklós Jancsó, 1967, Hungary] - Silence, The (Tystnaden) [Ingmar Bergman, 1963, Sweden] - Simon Of The Desert (Simon Del Desierto) [Luis Buñuel, 1966, Mexico] - Sin of Jesus, The [Robert Frank, 1961, USA] - Sirius Remembered [Stan Brakhage, 1959, USA] - Skullduggery [Stan Vanderbeek, 1956, USA] - Sleep [Andy Warhol, 1963-4, USA] - Smart Aleck [Stag, 1951, USA] - Smiles Of A Summer Night (Sommarnattens Leende) [Ingmar Bergman, 1957, Sweden] - Smoking [Joe Jones, 1970, USA] - Sodoma [Otto Muehl, 1970, Austria] - Some Like It Hot [Billy Wilder, 1958, USA] - Sorrow And The Pity, The (Le Chagrin Et La Pitie) [Marcel Ophuls, 1971, Switzerland] - Sort Of A Commercial For An Icebag [Michel Hugo, 1970, USA] - Souffrances D Un Oeuf Meurtri [Roland Lenthem, 1967, Belgium] - Spain 68 (España 68) [Unitelefilm Collective, 1968, Italy] - Spanish Earth, The [Joris Ivens, 1937, USA] - Storm Over Asia (Potomok Chingis-Khan) [V. I. Pudovkin, 1928, USSR] - Stranger Knocks, A (En Fremmed Banker Pa) [Johan Jacobsen, 1963, Denmark] - Straw Dogs [Sam Peckinpah, 1971, USA] - Strike (Stachka) [Sergei M. Eisenstein, 1924, USSR] - Student Strike (Lipanjska Gibanja) [Zelimir Zilnik, 1968, Yugoslavia] - Sudden Wealth Of The Poor People Of Kombach, The (Der Plötzliche Reichtum Der Armen Leute Von Kombach) [Volker Schloendorff, 1971, West Germany] - Sunday [Dan Drasin, 1961, USA] - Sunnyside [Charles Chaplin, 1919, USA] - Runs Good [Pat O'Neill, 1971, USA] - Superior Toys - Made In The USA (Feine Spielwaren - Made In USA) [Guenter Raetz, 1969, East Germany] - Suppression Of Women Is Recognizable Above All By The Behaviour Of The Women Themselves!, The (Die Unterdruckung Der Frauen Ist Vor Allen Am Verhalten Der Frauen Selber Zu Erkennen!) [Helmuth Costard, 1970, Germany] - Susan After The Sugar Harvest [Peter Robinson, 1971, USA] - Take Me [Stephen Dwoskin, 1969, Great Britain] - Tales [Cassandra Gerstein, 1970, USA] - Tales of Kubelkind (Geschichten vom Kubelkind) [Ula Stoeckl and Edgar Reitz, 1970, West Germany] - Taranta, La [Gianfranco Mengozzi, 1961, Italy] - Technique and The Rite, The (La Tecnica E II Rito) [Miklós Jancsó, 1971, Italy] - This Is It [James Broughton, 1971, USA] - Three Lives [Kate Millett, 1971, USA] - Time In The Sun [Marie Seton and Burnford from Sergei M. Eistenstein, 1930, USA] - Time Of Violence (Tempo Di Violencia) [Anonymous, 1970, Argentina] - Titicut Follies [Frederick Wiseman, 1967, USA] - To Live (Vivre) [Carlos Vilardebo, 1960, France] - Tom, Tom, The Piper's Son [Ken Jacobs, 1969, USA] - Touch Of Evil [Orson Welles, 1957, USA] - Tout Va Bien [Jean-Luc Godard, 1972, France] - Town Presented To The Jews As A Gift By The Fuhrer, A (Mesto Darovane) [Vladimir Kressl, 1968, Czechoslovakia] - Trash [Paul Morrissey, 1970, USA] - Triumph Of The Will (Triumph Des Willens) [Leni Riefenstahl, 1936, Germany] - Tropic Of Cancer [Joseph Strick, 1970, USA] - Troublemakers [Robert Machover and Norman Fruchter, 1966, USA] - Tup-Tup [Nedeljko Dragic, 1972, Yugoslavia] - Twice A Man [Gregory J. Markopoulos, 1963, USA] - Twilight Of The Damned, The (L Aube Des Damnes) [Ahmed Rachedi, 1970, Algeria] - Two Men And A Wardrobe (Dwaj LudzicZ Szafa) [Roman Polanski, 1957, Poland] - Two Or Three Things I Know About Her (Deux Ou Trois Choses Que Je Sals D'Elle) [Jean-Luc Godard, 1966, France] - 2001 [Stanley Kubrick, 1968, Great Britain] - UFO's [Lillian Schwartz and Ken Knowlton, 1972, USA] - Unfolding [Constance Beeson, 1969, USA] - Untitled (Bez Naslova) [Borivoj Dovnikovic, 1965, Yugoslavia] - Vali [Sheldon and Diane Rachlin, 1965, USA] - Valparaiso, Valparaiso [Pascal Aubier, 1971, France] - Vampires (Les Vampires) [Louis Feuillade, 1915, France] - Vampyr (Dreyer) [Carl Theodor Dreyer, 1931, Germany/France] - Vampyr (Portabella) [Pedro Portabella, 1970, Spain] - Variety (Variété) [Ewald Andre Dupont, 1925, Germany] - Verificata Incerta, La [Gian Franco Barucello, Alberto Griffi, 1965, Italy] - Vertigo [Alfred Hitchcock, 1958, USA] - Vietnam, Land of Fire [No credits available, 1966, France] - Village Of The Damned [Wolf Rilla, 1960, Great Britain] - Violated Angels (Okasareta Byakui) [Koji Wakamatsu, 1967, Japan] - Viridiana [Luis Buñuel, 1961, Spain/Mexico] - Visual Training [Frans Zwartjes, 1969, Holland] - Viva La Muerte [Arrabal, 1971, France] - Vixen [Russ Meyers, 1968, USA] - Vow, The [Mikhail Chiaureli, 1946, USSR] - WR - Mysteries Of The Organism (WR - Misterije Organizma) [Dusan Makavejev, 1971, Yugoslavia] - Walkover [Jerzy Skolimowski, 1965, Poland] - Wall, The (Zid) [Ante Zaninovic, 1966, Yugoslavia] - Wandering (Bloudeni) [Jan Curik and Antonin Masa, 1965, Czechoslovakia] - War Game, The [Peter Watkins, 1965, Great Britain] - Warrendale [Allan King, 1966, Canada] - Warsaw 1956 (Warsawa 1956) [Jerzy Bossak and Waclaw Kazimierczak, 1956, Poland] - Warsaw Ghetto [Anonymous, 1943/4, Germany] - Wavelength [Michael Snow, 1967, USA] - Weekend [Jean-Luc Godard, 1968, France] - What Goes On At Sex Therapy Clinics [Community Medical Cable Casting, 1972, USA] - What, Who, How [Stan Vanderbeek, 1955, USA] - When Love Fails [Michelangelo Antonioni, 1953, Italy] - Wholly Communion [Peter Whitehead, 1965, Great Britain] - Why (Hvorfor Goer De Det?) [Phyllis and Eberhard Kronhausen, 1971, Denmark] - Why Not [S. Arakawa, 1970, USA] - Window Water Baby Moving [Stan Brakhage, 1959, USA] - Winter Wind (Sirocco) [Miklós Jancsó, 1969, Hungary] - Wintersoldier [Winterfilm Collective, 1972, USA] - Witchcraft Through The Ages (Haxan) [Benjamin Christensen, 1922, Sweden] - Woman Of The Dunes (Suna No Onna) [Hiroshi Teshigahara, 1964, Japan] - Woman's Film, The [Judy Smith, Louise Alaimo and Ellen Sorrin (San Francisco Newsreel film collective), 1971, USA] - Woodstock [Micheal Wadleigh and Bob Maurice, 1969, USA] - Work [Charles Chaplin, 1915, USA] - World of Paul Delvaux, The (Le Monde De Paul Delvaux) [Henri Storck, 1947, Belgium] - Yippie [Yippie Film Collective, 1968, USA] - Zero for Conduct (Zéro De Conduite) [Jean Vigo, 1933, France] - Zorn's Lemma [Hollis Frampton, 1970, USA] - Young And The Damned, The (Los Olvidados) [Luis Buñuel, 1950, Mexico]

Via http://www.angoleiro.com/sbnb.cgi?l=1 [Jun 2006]

Chapter 1: the film experience

from the book Film As a Subversive Art (1974) - Amos Vogel

This is a book about the subversion of existing values, institutions, mores, and taboos -- East and West, Left and Right -- by the potentially most powerful art of the century. It is a book that traffics in scepticism towards all received wisdom (including its own), towards eternal truths, rules of art, "natural" and man-made laws, indeed whatever may be considered holy. It is an attempt to preserve for a fleeting moment in time -- the life of this book -- the works and achievements of the subversives of film.

Subversion in cinema starts when the theatre darkens and the screen lights up. For the cinema is a place of magic where psychological and environmental factors combine to create an openness to wonder and suggestion, and unlocking of the unconcious. It is a shrine at which modern rituals rooted in atavistic memories and subconscious desires are acted out in darkness and seclusion from the outer world.

The power of the image, our fear of it, the thrill that pulls us toward it, is real. Short of closing one's eyes -- in cinema, a difficult and unprecedented act -- there is no defense against it.

When Lumiere's immortal train first pulled into that station in 1895, moving directly towards the camera, the audience shrieked. it did so again when Bunuel sliced a woman's eyeball with a razor, when Clouzot quite literally made the dead return, when Hitchcock committed sudden murder in a shower, when Franju killed animals before its eyes. The audience fainted during films of operations, vomited during birth sequences, rose in spontaneous enthusiasm at propaganda films, wept while the heroine died protractedly from leukemia, shouted with delicious anxiety during Cinerama's rollercoaster ride, and even felt twinges of concern at being exposed to screen cholera. In the light of these manifest responses, why assume that the count- less other fantasies dreamt in silence in the cinemas of the world during the last seventy years -- fantasies of lust, violence, ambition, perversion, crime, and romantic love -- were any less powerful?

"It is at the movies that the only absolutely modern mystery is celebrated", said Andre Breton. (1) It is appropriate that it was a surrealist who so well expressed the curious combination of technology and metaphysics that is cinema; for modern science's realization of a continuum from the rational to the irrational relates directly to the very nature of the film-viewing process. This entails a darkened theatre, greater openness to suggestion, the semi-hypnotic trance of the viewer, the surfacing of deeper desires and anxieties, and the inhibition of reasoned response in favor of "gut-level" reaction. Far from representing a defeat in man's struggle towards conciousness, the acceptance of this inevitable duality (the flowing into each other of rationalism and irrationality) is itself a step toward the future.

The mechanics of the film-viewing process have been discussed by Mauerhofer, Kracauer, Stephenson-Debrix and others, (2) though a comprehensive analysis remains to be undertaken. The viewer enters the theatre willingly, if not eagerly, ready for surrender, (and deeply dissatisfied if the film is "bad" and the illusion does not "work"). The film experience requires total darkness; the viewer must not be distracted from the bright rectangle from which huge shapes impinge on him. Unlike the low-pressure television experience (during which the viewer remains aware of room environment and other people, aided by appropriately named "breaks"), the film experience is total, isolating, hallucinatory. The viewer "forgets" where or who he is and is offended by stray light, street or audience noises which destroy the anticipated, accepted illusion.

As soon as the lights are lowered, the huge rectangle of the screen -- previously noted without interest -- becomes the viewer's total universe. What transpires here in bursts of light and darkness is accepted as life; the images reach out to him; he enters them.

The many mysteries of film begin at this moment; the acceptance of a flat surface as three-dimensional, of sudden action-, scale- or set-changes as ordinary, of a border delimiting this fraudulent universe as normal, of black- and-white as reality. The spectator, Rudolf Arnheim points out, (3) experiences no shock at finding a world in which depth perception has been altered, sizes and distances flattened and the sky is the same color as the human face.

But the mysteries are only beginning. The very darkness enveloping the viewer is more complete than he realizes; for the essence of cinema is not light, but a secret compact between light and darkness. Half of all the time at the movies is spent by the transfixed victims of this technological art in complete darkness. There is no image on the screen at all. In the course of a single second, forty-eight periods of darkness follow forty-eight periods of light.

During this same infinitesimal period, every image is shown to the audience twice; and as a still photograph; for the film comes to a dead stop in the projector forty-eight times in the course of a single second. Given the retina's inability to adjust quickly to differences in brightness, an illusion of movement is created by this rapid, stop-start series projection of still photographs, each slightly different from the one before.

Thus, during half the time spent at the movies, the viewer sees no picture at all; and at no time is there any movement. Without the viewer's physiological and psychological complicity, the cinema could not exist.

The "illusion" of film -- so platitudinously invoked by journalists -- is thus revealed as a far more intricate web of deception, involving the very technology of the film process and the nature of its victim's perceptions. Could it be precisely during the periods of total darkness -- 45 out of every 90 minutes of film we see -- that our voracious subconcious, newly nourished by yet another provocative image, "absorbs" the work's deeper meaning and sets off chains of associations?

It is in this alien environment that the viewer willingly permits himself to be invaded by strong images, created and manipulated by a director-magician who entirely controls his vision. True, all vision, even undirected, is dynamic, and reflects, as Arnheim emphasizes, an invasion of the organism by external forces which upset the balance of the nervous system. (4) But while in daily life the viewer can shift his focus of attention as he wishes (without losing a sense of continuity regarding his surroundings), in cinema his attention is "riveted" on a pre-ordained succession of images, whose nature, tempo, sequence, and duration have been carefully constructed for maximum impact by a third party.

Removed from the real world, isolated even from fellow-viewers, the spectator falls to dream and reverie in the womb-like darkness of the theatre. Flooded by images, his unconcious is freed from customary constraints and his rational faculties are inhibited. Stephenson and Debrix point out that except for seeing and hearing, body and other senses are at rest in the cinema, thus allowing imagination, stimulated by the filmmaker's emotionally charged, expressly-selected material, to exert deeper and more lasting influence. Mauerhofer refers to the viewer's voluntary passivity and uncritical receptivity; and Kracauer emphasizes the dialectical wavering between self-absorption (leading the viewer away from the image, into personal associations triggered by it) and self-abandonment (the movement toward the image). Perhaps the state of the viewer (as Mauerhofer, the psychologist, and Breton, the surrealist, both agree) is closest to that between waking and sleeping, in which he abandons the rationality of daily life while not yet completely surrendering to his unconcious.

And the image is powerful; he cannot turn from it. For man, perhaps in response to an atavistic memory of fear or child-like joy, cannot resist the attraction of movement (when he enters a room or cinema, his eyes are inevitably drawn to the moving shapes). He cannot "resist" the shocking changes caused by editing, the sudden intrusion of shapes into the frame, the cascading bursts of images flashing by at a rate faster than life,the sensuous power of the close-up looming over him. It is so much easier to turn from the action into a live play. Here the spectator has accepted its unreality (just as he accepted the film's "reality") and since he knows it cannot "reach out" and attack him, he never flinches from stage as he does from screen violence. In both cases, the murdered man rises to be killed another time; but cinema is "closer" to the viewer -- strange tribute to the faculties of a brain more affected by two-dimensional reflections on flat canvas than by live actors performing in three-dimensional space.

And it is a tribute to the power of visuals as such. For in man's evolution, images antedate words and thought, thus reaching deeper, older, more basic layers of the self. Man begins with what he sees, progressing to visual representations of reality. Their transmutation into art does not seem to diminish the images' impact. As holy today as in man's pre-history, the image is accepted as if it were life, reality, truth. it is accepted on a feeling - rather than mind- level. Significantly, it is only if the "suspension of disbelief" is broken by disssatisfaction with a given film that the viewer emerges from his hypnotized state.

And yet, however "authentic" the image, it remains a distortion of life. Not only does it lack depth or density, the space-time continuum, or the non-selectivity of reality, but it emphasizes certain aspects to the exclusion of others by isolation them within a fixed frame in a constantly evolving concatenation of blacks and whites, objects and grounds. This magical invocation of concrete images that seemingly reflects reality while actually distorting it, sets up additional tension between film and spectator; it increases his sense of dislocation and disquiet and permits further inroads into his ever more vulnerable subconcious.

It is the powerful impact of these brightly-lit images moving in black space and artificial time, their affinity to trance and the subconcious, and their ability to influence masses and jump boundaries, that has forever made the cinema an appropriate target of the repressive forces in society -- censors, traditionalists, the state. While the result has often been its inability openly to project fundamental human experiences or insights, neither repression nor fear seem able to stem an accelerating, world-wide trend towards a more liberated cinema, one in which all previously forbidden subjects are boldly explored. This evolution from taboo into freedom is the subject of this book.


(1) Andre Breton, quoted in Surrealism and Film (1971) - J.H. Matthews
(2)  Hugh Mauerhofer, "Psychology of Film Experience", The Penguin Film Review, 1949
+ Siegfried Kracauer, Theory of Film, 1960,
+ Ralph Stephenson and J.R. Debrix, The Cinema as Art, 1965.
(3)  Rudolf Arnheim, Film as Art, 1933 / 1957
(4)  Idem, Art and Visual Perception, 1965

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